Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan by Theodore J. Karamanski is an interesting book. It gives a very in depth look into the lumber industry in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The book is very dense with information and stories of the times. So in my main report I tried to filter the stories and dense information just to include the economic aspects, and some descriptions as to what the pine era of logging in Michigan was. So I’ll take some of this blog space to tell a story or two and some outside information of the logging industry. Ill start with the environmental aspects of the aggressive pine logging in Michigan. One of the most detrimental aspects of logging was the squaring of logs to make mast for ships. Early on in the Michigan logging history, loggers (typically French-Canadian) would pick the cream of the crop trees to be harvested. In order to square these massive 60 to 100 foot logs, lumberjacks would have to hew the logs with a broad axe. Hewing these logs meant chipping away an immense portion of the trunk area and through the length of the log. So huge piles of wood chips and/or slash would be littered throughout the forests. The slash was terrible for vegetation, stunting natural growth of indigenous plants. The wood chips when dried out were a serious fire hazard and the Upper Peninsula was plagued with forest fires during the logging years. The forest fires burned the organic material in the soil making it difficult for the regeneration of vegetation. The fires also made the soils hydrophobic meaning the soil repelled water, having a devastating effect on the wildlife.